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BIOLOGY 103 Spring 2015FINAL EXAMINATIONPlease copy and paste the final examination into a Word file. Complete it in this form (do not make any structural changes!) and submit it as an attachment into your Assignment Folder. Do not forget to put your name on top of the exam!The absolute deadline for submission is Sunday, March 8, NOON.I cannot accept any later submissions.YOUR NAME:_______________________________________________________________Total possible points: 100I. Multiple choice questions. Please bold or underline the correct answer (1point each=50 points)1. In October of 2003, a raging wildfire swept through the mountain ecosystems in Southern California, burning everything in its path to the ground and driving away all of the animals. In order for the mountain ecosystem to establish itself, which member of the food web has to return first?DeerCoyotesSnakeGrasses2. Suppose you conduct an experiment which simulates glacial recession over time. What is the dependent variable in this experiment?Glacial massSunlightThe seasonTime3. How many dependent variables can be tested during any single experiment?43214. The effectiveness of a medication containing growth hormones is tested on a group of young male rabbits 3 weeks of age. The best control group would be:Any group of rabbitsA group of male rabbits, three weeks old, not given the medicationA group of female rabbits, three weeks old, not given the medicationA mixed group of male/female rabbits, three weeks old, not given the medicationNo control is required; just measure whether the rabbits grew5. When writing a lab report or a research paper, you need to show what the difference is between the “Results” section and the ”Discussion” section. Which of the following is correct?The Discussion analyzes data, whereas the Results analyzes the procedure.The Discussion analyzes data, whereas the Results displays data.The Discussion displays data, whereas the Results analyzes the Discussion.The Discussion displays the procedure, whereas the Results analyzes the data.6. What characteristic of carbon makes it a good backbone for creating diverse and durable molecules?Carbon is a large atomCarbon forms four covalent bondsCarbon forms hydrogen bondsAll of the above7. Which of the following reactions or pathways is catabolic?Converting glucose to carbon dioxide and water (cellular respiration)Making starch from many glucose monomersPhotosynthesis, which builds glucose from carbon dioxide using energy from lightMaking ATP from ADP and phosphate8. One human disease is caused by a change in the DNA from GAA to GUA. This change is an example of:Crossing-overA meiosis errorA mitosis errorA mutation9. What subatomic particles are found in the nucleus?ElecctronsProtonsNeutronsProtons and neutronsProtons and electrons10. Which of the following describes H20, NaCl, CO2, and HCl?All are acidsAll are gasesAll are saltsAll are inorganic molecules11. Which of the following correctly describes a buffer?A buffer converts an alkaline solution to neutralA buffer converts an acid solution to neutral.A buffer converts alkaline solutions to acid solutions.A buffer converts strong bases or acids to weak bases or acids.12. Which term does not belong in this list?AcidVinegarHydrogen ion donorpH 8Lactic acid13. The process in which molecules spread randomly from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration is:FiltrationDiffusionExocytosisOsmosis14. Organize the following solutions from most concentrated to least concentrated: hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic.Hypotonic>Hypertonic>IsotonicHypertonic>Hypotonic>IsotonicHypertonic>Isotonic>HypotonicIsotonic>Hypotonic>Hypertonic15. The rate of diffusion depends on which of the following?The mediumThe size of the moleculeThe polarityAll of the aboveA. and C. only16. All of the following are examples of elements exceptOxygenWaterHydrogenCarbon17. What would happen to a eukaryotic cell, if too much osmotic pressure develops within a cell?The cell would remain the same size, but the internal organelles would become dehydratedThe cell would decrease in size, and could collapse.The cell would increase in size, and could lyse.Nothing, osmotic pressure does not impact the cell.18. Inthe following chemical reaction, what is carbon dioxide (CO2)?12 H20 + 6 CO2 = 1 glucose molecule + 6 O2A. substrateB. productC. enzymeD. activation factorE. independent variable19. The bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons is a_________ bond.PolarHydrogenIonicCovalent20. Which of the following terms includes all of the chemical reactions that occur within a cell?Cellular respirationCatabolismRedox reactionsMetabolismPhosphorylation21. Within a cell, energy released by electrons is often used to phosphorylate which of the following molecules?ADPATPPyruvate ionsOxygenNAD22. All of the following apply to glycolysis exceptOccurs without oxygenDegrades glucose to H2O and CO2Ends with formation of pyruvic acidOccurs during fermentation23. In which of the phases of cellular respiration is the majority of ATP formed?Processing of pyruvic acid for the Krebs cycleElectron transport chainGlycolysisThe Krebs cycleAll phases produce the same number of ATP molecules24. The energy of the sun is converted into usable energy for the cell in the form of _________.ADPATPGlucoseCO225. The starting materials of photosynthesis are _____________Oxygen and glucoseCarbon dioxide and oxygenCarbon dioxide and waterOxygen and water26. What type of macro-molecule is frequently an enzyme?CarbohydrateNucleic acidLipidProtein27. What function do enzymes perform?Increase substrate concentrationIncrease the temperatureIncrease the activation energy required for a reaction to occurDecrease the activation energy required for a reaction to occur28. The most important aspect of cellular respiration is that ___________________It is the process that occurs only in animal cellsIt is the process that utilizes fat as its primary energy sourceIt is the process that enables living organisms to utilize the energy stored in glucoseIt is the only cellular process that yields ATP29. The statement best describes the relationship between plants and animals on earth isPlants produce O2 and sugars from CO2Animals produce CO2 and H2O from sugars and O2Plants produce O2 and sugars and animals produce CO2 and H2OAnimals produce O2 and sugars and plants produce CO2 and H2O30. What is the function of the ribosome?DigestionRNA duplicationMobilityProtein synthesis31. What is the function of the lysosome?Prokaryotic digestionEukaryotic digestionProkaryotic mobilityEukaryotic mobility32. In what stage of the cell cycle is genetic content replicated?InterphaseProphaseMetaphaseAnaphaseTelophase33. How many chromatids comprise a duplicated chromosome?OneTwoThreeFour34. Which of the following could not be a sequence of RNA?GCGUUUUAUGCGATGCGTAUGCGUAAACUG35. The product of meiosis includes which of the following?Haploid cellsGenetically unique cellsFour daughter cellsAll of the aboveA. and C. only36. Often referred to as the Central Dogma, identify the traditional sequence of protein synthesis.DNA->RNA->ProteinRNA->DNA->ProteinProtein->RNA->DNAProtein->DNA->RNA37. In humans, the allele for dimples (D) is dominant. The allele for not having dimples (d) is recessive. If a woman (DD) and a man (Dd) have four children, how many of the children will not have dimples?0123438. Which of the following variations could be subject to natural selection?A dog with short legs due to malnutrition is able to crawl into holes better than his litter mates.A tree is not infested by a ground-dwelloing beetle when the homeowener cuts the lower branches.A hyena is born with a spotted fur pattern that allows it to hide in the grass better than his litter mates.A pigeon learns that’s when its keeper comes near, it will be fed.All of these variations may be acted on by natural selection.39. What do plants and animals have in common?They are both heterotrophicThey are both autotrophicThey are both prokaryoticThey are both eukaryoticThey are both hydrophobic40. Which of the following is not a characteristic of fungi?Cells have cell wallsPhotosyntheticInclude single-celled and filamentous formsCan use a wide variety of nutrient41. Microevolution is defined as:Changes in population sizeChanges in the frequency of alleles in the gene poolChanges in the composition of the populationEmergence of new speciesChanges in community size42. A zorse is the offspring produced through interbreeding between a horse and a zebra. Zorses are often preferred for riding because of their physical shape, but they are sterile. According to Linnaean taxonomy, are zebras and horses classified in the same species?YesNoSometimesNot enough information to determine43. Red rose color is incompletely dominant over white rose color. If a red rose is crossed with a pink rose, what percentage of the offspring will be pink?10075502544. Honey bees engage in entomophily, pollination through pollen distribution, as part of the process to produce honey. What is entomophily an example of?EcosystemNicheCommunityHabitat45. Themajority of climate scientists suggest that the current change in climate is caused predominantly by ________.An enhancement of the greenhouse effectA decreased reliance on fossil fuels for energyA thinning of the ozone layerA melting of the polar ice capsAn increase in solar radiation46. Which of the following is not an expected effect of global climate change?A rise in the sea levelsFlooding of coastal citiesDecrease in the size of glaciers and ice sheetsIncrease in the size of glacier and ice sheetsMore extreme weather47. If a wolf eats a rodent which ate a small insect which ate a plant, the wolf would be a(n)AutotrophPrimary producerPrimary consumerSecondary consumerTertiary consumer48. The organisms that represent the different species within an ecosystem that interact in various ways, comprise a _______________PopulationTrophic levelSpeciesCommunityHabitat49. Inheritable mutations, which may allow a population to evolve, are producedAs a response to selection pressureBy chanceBy natural selectionAs a response to environmental pressureBy artificial selection50. The ability of fireflies and angler fish to produce light is an example of convergent evolution. What can you conclude about these two animals based on this information?They share a recent common ancestorThe ability to produce light is an ancient traitThey are found in the same locationThey are both adapted to environments which are low in lightAll of the aboveII. Matching of definitions and terms. Please place the correct number in front of each definition. (1 point each = 10 points):____ DNA with attached proteins____ A haploid cell that combines with another haploid cell during fertilization____ Converts light energy to chemical energy stored in the chemical bonds of glucose orstarch____ A specific portion of a chromosome that contains information for a particular inheritedtrait____ An interaction during meiosis in which chromatids exchange segments; it results in geneticrecombination____ Nucleotide that drives most energy-requiring metabolic reaction____ Extracts energy stored in carbohydrates; synthesizes ATP; produces water and carbondioxide____ The process in which ribosomes synthesize proteins using the mRNA transcript____ The synthesis of mRNA from a DNA template____ Are primary cellular structures (or components) where proteins are assembled1. ATP2. chromosome3. crossing over4. chloroplast5. gamete6. DNA molecules7. gene8. germ cell9. meiosis10. central vacuoles11. lysosomes12. mitochondrion13. mitosis14. translation15. transcription16. ribosomes17. microtubules18. Golgi bodies19. RNA molecules20. nucleoliIII. True-False questions. (1 point each = 5 points):1. Diffusion will occur, if a concentration gradient exists.TrueFalse2. When a founder population has a small gene pool, evolutionary change is more likely to be rapid than if the founder population has a large gene pool.TrueFalse3. Stabilizing selection is a pattern of natural selection that favors an average, not extreme, expression of a trait.TrueFalse4. Once an adaptive feature appears, it remains in all the descendant unless the species becomes extinct.TrueFalse5. Humans are more likely to be infected by viruses after the viruses had a chance to multiply outside the body on surfaces touched by infected people.TrueFalseIV. Matching of Terms/Concepts with Definitions/Associations. Place the correct number on the line behind each term. (1/2 point each=5 points)Term or ConceptWater molecule ___Carbon ___Homeostasis ___Ionic Bonding ___Covalent Bonding ___Carbohydrate ___Enzyme ___Acid  ___Base ___Lipid ___Definition/Association1. energy source2. two atoms sharing electrons3. electron donated/received4. hydrophobic5. element found in all living organisms6. catalyst7. OH- > H+8. polar9. characteristic of all living organisms10. H+ > OH-V. Brief essay questions: Please write a concise and succinct response to each one of the following questions; be sure to mark your answers with the correct essay number. I am looking for clarity and detail which reflects your knowledge of the subject. Always include appropriate examples, if warranted. (Total possible points=30)1. The habitat of one species of tropical fish is red coral reefs. The large majority of the fish in this populations are red. A few individual fish carry a mutation that prevents the production of the red pigment; as a result, these fish are white. The temperature of the ocean where these fish live becomes warmer and warmer over a ten year period, and, as a result, the coral is bleached and turns white. Use what you have learned about natural selection to explain how this bleaching event may have affected the evolution of this fish population (not including possible direct effects of warmer temperatures for the fish). Include the following terms in your explanation: Differential reproduction, beneficial trait, allele frequency, selection pressure, evolution (5 possible points)2. You scoop up a water sample from a local pond nearby, because you are curious about the possible microbes that might live there. After looking at several slides that held drops of the sample, you noticed two different kinds of cells: One kind was very small and had no separate internal structures; the other kind was much larger, and it contained several kinds of internal structures that were physically different from each other. Please name each cell and briefly describe their overall similarities and differences. (5 possible points)3. Humans share 99% of their genes with chimpanzees, 90% with mice, 50% with fruit flies, and 37% with celery. Please explain the evolutionary significance of these data. Phylogenetic details here are essential. (5 possible points)4. A population of pygmy-deer becomes re-established on an island after having been absent for a very long time. They are given ‘protective status’, and flourish in numbers. Then an unusually long and harsh winter happens. The deer are seen eating bark, raiding bird feeders, and some die. Describe both the density-dependent and density independent factors at work here, and explain what might be happening to this population. Terms such as carrying capacity, and birth and death rates must be part of your discussion. (5 possible points)5. When a rabbit eats the lettuce in your garden, all of the energy in the lettuce is used by the rabbit. Is this statement true or false? Defend your answer. Your answer must be detailed about energy conversions and trophic levels. (5 possible points)6. Before recombinant products were available, humans who needed hormones or other biological products, such as insulin, had to use products that were harvested from other humans and non-human animals. Can you think of specific health risks that might be associated with products that were not made with genetically engineered bacteria? (5 possible points)

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