200-250 words and 1-2 scholarly references under each response.
1) Kenneth Hall
Re: Topic 3 DQ 1 (Obj. 3.1)
How does Super’s Theory fit in with Eric Erikson’s Developmental Theory? Do they support or contrast with one another Just like Erickson’s stages of psychosocial development build upon one another so too do Super’s stages of development? Erickson identifies the following stages of development (Cherry, 2017):
- Trust vs. Mistrust (birth – 18)
- Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (2- 3 years)
- Initiative vs. Guilt (3-5 years)
- Industry vs. Inferiority *6 – 11 years)
- Identity vs. Confusion (12 – 18 years)
- Intimacy vs. Isolation (19 – 40 years)
- Generativity vs. Stagnation (40 – 65 years)
- Integrity vs. Despair (65 – death)
Cherry, K. (2017). Erik Erickson’s Theroy of Psychosocial Development. Retrireved from
2) Charles Roberts
Re: Topic 3 DQ 1 (Obj. 3.1)
If I were explaining Super’s theory to a 15-year-old seeking career advice:
It is challenging to get a concrete idea of what kind of career that will fit your lifestyle for your entire working life. Donald Super has a theory that people evolve, and with gained experiences, one’s career choices and developments will change over time (Sterner, 2012). Super has five categories in which one grows and develops over time, and as one gains experiences and influences from other people and society, as well as doing things hands-on, one’s interests also change in careers (Sterner, 2012). The five changes that I will explain are growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, and decline. Growth relates to the general development of the concept of work; exploration is beginning to experience, experiment, and get a taste of things you like to do and what interests you. The establishment is building skills and experience through being introduced to a profession, and starting, maintenance is evolving to improve skills and eventually be a “master of your craft.” The decline is the final stage in which one is ready to retire (Sterner, 2012).
To summarize, life is a long and complicated series of experiences that will influence us and spark interests that will sway us through career choices. At age 15, one is still in the exploration stage, so the advice I give is to seriously contemplate what you enjoy doing and what you feel your purpose is. This may take some self-exploration, but also talking to people that are in the career field you are interested in and doing some research to the pros and cons of the career; as this is to give a realistic view of what you perceive you will like to do versus a career choice.
Sterner, W. R. (2012). Integrating existentialism and super’s life-span, life-space approach. The Career Development Quarterly, 60(2), 152–162.
3) Kelly Stebbins
Re: Topic 3 DQ 2 (Obj. 3.3)
I do think that some dreams can be unrealistic but that is only because a child will never understand how hard they will have to work to achieve certain things until they have left home and realize how difficult things can be as well as how expensive general things are nowadays and prices will continue to rise into their adulthood. Wages will never accomodate the high cost of living but we have to be willing to support our children and explain to them not to give up on the dream but to always have a back up plan. While I do agree with most of Supers theory because peoples interests do change over time due to maturity and growth but it is possible for someone to always have the same dream and strive for nothing else but that their entire lives because I have seen that as well.
I’ll use my son as an example he is in the growth stage which is 4-13. This is where children begin to develop their interests and socialize more. It is also a time to acquire competent habits in school and work (career.iresearch.net, 2019). I think that there is a delicate balance because we don’t want to discourage our children but we have to honest about if certain goals are realistic or not. For example, my son is 11 and he wants to be a professional basketball player and I have explained that this is going to be hard work and dedication. He also needs to strive for a plan B. While we spend all of our time doing everything and anything basketball related, I explained to him that his interests could change. Next year he could want to do something completely different. Over the course of my lifetime I have switched careers quite a bit. I think that as a society we could probably stop glamorizing the wrong things such as famous people, liquor, and sex. This is pushed on us so much that it seems people now live to idolize it. Also goverment could help children succeed by not making people graduate from college thousands of dollars in debt to student loans. It is unrealistic for society to tell us we can’t get anywhere unless we are educated and for jobs to require masters degrees and pay 15 dollars an hour. This is setting our chilren and our society up to fail in my opinion.
4) Jeanette Limoli
Re: Topic 3 DQ 1 (Obj. 3.1 and 3.2)
According to Meyer & Melchert (2011), the intake assessment is a very important part of the entire process of mental health treatment in which all of the information that is taken during the intake helps the counselor determine a diagnosis that will tell if the client has a mental illness. This intake could include information about the client’s family history as well as childhood because the client could have had experienced behavior throughout childhood that could identify a mental illness within the clients life. some mental disorders may take affect during the early stages of a client’s life. For example, my neighbor brother who was born with epilepsy seizures in which has cause a severe mental disorder but my parent could not detect those mental disorders until about the age of 6 or 7, in which some of them included a delay in speech, communication and cognitive motor development. The neighbor shared around the age of 7 or 8 the brother started to stare at the light fixture quite often in which was very abnormal due to the fact that He could look directly into the bright sun without flinching.
The clients development can affect how well they respond to treatment because if they are young or in a childhood development, they may need intervention geared for a child and not an adult. There are some treatment that could work with either child or adult depending on where they are developmentally. The brother, developmentally is considered on the age level of a 3 or 4 year old, but due to the fact that He is almost 30, he is to be treated as a adult.
Meyer, L., & Melchert, T. P. (2011). Examining the content of mental health intake assessments from a biopsychosocial perspective. Journal Of Psychotherapy Integration, 21(1), 70-89. doi:10.1037/a0022907
5) Sara Sanchez
Re: Topic 3 DQ 2 (Obj. 3.2)
Mental illnesses can be interpreted in different ways according to gender, ethnicity, race, or socioeconomic status, based on the counselor’s pathological viewpoints. Schwitzer and Rubin (2015) explains that there is a potential diagnostic bias “whereby clinicians might routinely overdiagnose, underdiagnosed, or misdiagnose clients populating specific demographic groups, such as on the basis of ethnicity, gender, age, or socioeconomic status” (p. 38). Furthermore, because mental illnesses can be interpreted in different ways, the counselor must attempt a more holistic person-focused classification that takes into account the client as a whole, in order to provide the most appropriate diagnosis.
For this reason, the DSM-V attempts to address issues of gender and multiculturalism by including contextual information when it is known under a separate heading. For example, the DSM text alerts clinicians to take into consideration the client’s cultural and socioeconomic background when making a diagnosis for schizophrenia because ideas that appear to be delusional in one culture may be commonly believed in another culture.
Also, patterns of mental illnesses such as Bipolar Disorder seem to differ amongst gender. For example, Major Depression is diagnosed more commonly among women, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder tends to be diagnosed more among males than females at an earlier age (Schwitzer and Rubin, 2015).
Moreover, because patterns of illnesses differ greatly according to population, it is imperative that counselors remain aware of clinical research literature about diagnostic bias.
Schwitzer, A., & Rubin, L. (2015). Diagnosis & Treatment Planning Skills A Popular Culture Casebook Approach[Second edition].
6) Kelly Williams
Re: Topic 3 DQ 2 (Obj. 3.2)
Patterns of mental illness differ depending on who the population is. There are differences in the patterns of mental illness when we look at factors like age, gender and socioeconomic status. Another major factor in the pattern of mental illness is culture. The office of the surgeon general (US) states, “More often, culture bears on whether people even seek help in the first place, what types of help they seek, what types of coping styles and social supports they have, and how much stigma they attach to mental illness”.
An adolescent client may not understand what depression is, so he or she may not understand that consistent feelings of sadness are not the norm.
A male client may be reluctant to express feeling associated with being a woman, whereas women may be more comfortable expressing their feelings.
Cultural differences could be the cause of a wife’s reluctance to open up in therapy sessions with her husband.
Office of the Surgeon General (US); Center for Mental Health Services (US); National Institute of Mental Health (US). Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity: A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US); 2001 Aug. Chapter 2 Culture Counts: The Influence of Culture and Society on Mental Health. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK44249/