Assignment 2: Current Events and U.S. Diplomacy
Due Week 9 and worth 175 points
This paper will be a revised and expanded version of the first research paper. Based on your instructor’s feedback, you will first revise the first paper.
Write three-to-four (3-4) new pages that address the following:
- Define presidential doctrine and summarize the regional or global events during the Cold War leading up to the formation of the presidential doctrine you wrote about in Assignment 1.
- Select one country you wrote about in Assignment 1 and describe the Cold War relationship that existed between the country you selected and the U.S. before the presidential doctrine was announced.
- Describe the relationship that currently exists between the U.S. and the country you selected in section (2) above.
- Describe the effect that the presidential doctrine has had on regional or global affairs since it was announced during the Cold War.
- Assess whether or not the presidential doctrine you wrote about in Assignment 1 doctrine had had the intended effect of altering the behavior of the country you selected in section (2) above since the doctrine was first announced.
- Use at least four (4) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources.
To help you understand this assignment further, the following description and examples may be useful.
Step 1: Define doctrine and identify why a president would want to announce one.
A doctrine is an ideological platform that a president uses to advance a policy towards a country or region in order to accomplish foreign policy goals for the United States, so you will need to expand on this theme.
Refer back to Assignment 1, and build on whatever doctrine you wrote about then. Say, for example, you selected the Truman Doctrine. Therefore, this is the only thing you will write about in Assignment 2 step 1.
Step 2: Select one country you wrote about in Assignment 1 and describe the Cold War relationship that existed between it and the U.S.
Before the presidential doctrine was announced. In the case of Truman, you would pick either the Soviet Union, Greece, or Iran, since all three were affected by his doctrine. If you are writing about the Eisenhower Doctrine, you would choose Lebanon or Egypt; if you wrote about the Kennedy Doctrine, you would have write about Cuba or Vietnam; if your wrote about the Nixon Doctrine, you would choose either Vietnam, Saudi Arabia or Iran; if you chose Carter, you would select either Iran or Afghanistan; and if you wrote about the Reagan Doctrine, you would select Nicaragua, Angola, Russia or Afghanistan (although there were several others).
Step 3: Describe what effect the presidential doctrine you chose has had on regional or global affairs since it was announced during the Cold War.
That is, how did the doctrine change the status quo regionally or globally after it was announced by the U.S.? What happened in Western Europe after the Truman Doctrine was announced? What happened in the Middle East after the Eisenhower Doctrine was announced? What happened with Cuba or Vietnam after Kennedy offered up his doctrine of flexible response? What happened in Southeast Asia or the Persian Gulf after the Nixon Doctrine went in effect? What happened in the Middle East after the Carter Doctrine was announced? What happened in Central America or Africa or the Middle East after Reagan announced his doctrine?
Step 4: Refer back to the country you selected in step two and describe the relationship that currently exists between the U.S. and that country.
How has the relationship changed between the U.S. and that country since the doctrine was announced?
Step 5: Evaluate whether or not the presidential doctrine had had the intended effect of altering the behavior of the one country you selected in section (2) above since the doctrine was first announced.
Your assignment must:
- Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
- Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required page length.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
- Identify the cultural, economic, and political context of information resources, and interpret information in light of that context.
- Use technology and information resources to research issues in international problems.
- Write clearly and concisely about international problems using proper writing mechanics
According to Norton, Sheriff, Et al, (2011), presidential doctrines are basically the attitudes, stances or attitudes for The United States of America foreign affairs plan by presidents. However, most of these presidential doctrines were related to cold war. After the cold war a leading basis during President Kennedy years, there was a need to cover communism at any cost. Kennedy called upon for military unison and strength to curb communism. Another main theme in this doctrine was basically to control international system events simply because the United States of America had the power and ability to do so.
In addition, the Kennedy Doctrine was fundamentally an extension of the foreign policy privileges of the earlier presidencies of Harry S. Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower. All these presidents’ foreign policies rotated around communism threats including the means that would be used to cover up the spread of it by the United States.
According to McCormick, (1995), The Eisenhower Doctrine concentrated upon providing both economic and military support to nations fighting communism within the Middle East and by aggregating the trade flow into Latin America from the United States while the Truman Doctrine concentrated on the repression of communism by offering support to nations repelling communism in Europe. On the other hand, The Kennedy Doctrine was grounded on similar goals but was extra apprehensive with communism spreading and Soviet inspiration in Latin America after the Cuban upheaval that got Fidel Castro to authority in the 1950s under Eisenhower.
After Fidel Castro took power in Cuba, the relationship between Cuba and the United States of America the relationship between the two nations started deteriorating reaching to a climax when President Dwight D. Eisenhower closed severs diplomatic relations and the American embassy that was situated in Havana, Cuba (Domínguez, 1997). However, this was a great signal to Cuba that America was now ready to take extreme actions against Castro’s regime, which was seen by the officials from the United States to be a lodgment of communism within the western hemisphere.
After a series of increasing conflicts between United States and Cuban governments they later parted, and that is the time that Fidel Castro turned for assistance from the United States ultimate enemy and rival, the Soviet Union. However, the alliance between Cuba and Soviet Union was the main reason that America saw Castro threat to their security and that was evident during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. Additionally, Che Guevara, Castro and other influential leaders encouraged and supported revolt all through Africa and Latin America (Domínguez, 1997).
Castro’s regime by 1960, had grabbed private land, state-owned hundreds of private companies, comprising numerous local affiliates of U.S. organizations and overtaxed United States of American products that United States exports were split in just two years. This greatly affected the United States economy and that’s why President Eisenhower Government reacted by executing trade limitations on everything excluding medical supplies and food.
According to Litwak, (2000), on Feb. 7, 1962 President Kennedy issued the perpetual restriction, this was after he shipped in 1,200 cigars from Cuba. Within several years Cuba’s economy was deteriorating since America was not trading with them and due to the fact that they always depended on products made in America. Decrease in food consumption, televisions and Telephones were not available, importing cars from America was very hard hence affected their economy as they observed their pre-restricted vehicles erode into rattletraps. The relationship between the United States of America and Cuban governments can be summarized by just a few words “Great enemies” simply because Cuban government had become too anti-American to be trusted.
For more than five decades or bad relationship, President Barack Obama of the United States and Cuban President Raul Castro officially announce that the both governments would reinstate complete diplomatic, on December, 2014. This was made successful by the secret talks between the Cuban and United States officials that took at least eighteen months; this was followed by release of foreign prisoners from both countries by both countries. On July, 2015, both nations in each other’s capitals they revived their embassies successfully reinstating full diplomatic relations.
On this month, Jan 2016, trade and new travel regulations were legislated that permit United States travelers to officially visit Cuba deprived of attaining a government license first. Travellers will be permitted to spend money on both countries and also airlines will be allowed to offer the country services. The new rules will favor economic transactions by removing economic sanctions.
Although, Cuba had remained strong and hence resisted the United States within a very tough and long period of time, President Kennedy’s doctrine dealt with this case strongly. His statesmanship skills led to a remarkable success of America over Cuba rebellion. The economy in the United States improved as the Cuban economy deteriorated due to retaliatory restriction that was executed on Cuban people who were already suffering.
According to Wright, (2001), after the humanitarian and cultural relationship between the people of United States and Cuban people was outlawed, the people of Cuban continued to suffer as United States curtailed the trade between the two nations, lack of enough food, poor medical services deteriorated their health. On the other hand, the successful Cuban missile crisis in 1977, weaken the Cuban government making the United States remain strong and tough to the poor Cuba.
However, it is clear that the two nations would benefit from trading together, the trade restrictions did not have a great impact to the entrenched government of Cuba, and it harmed the innocent citizens of Cuba while the embedded bureaucrats uphold normal living standards as the citizens of Cuba continue to suffer.
Cuba had become one of great United States territorial importance, American government had to work faster so as to invade and capture their territories, and hence this remains the main reason as to why Kennedy’s doctrine was executed. Communism that was faster spreading within the Latin America was basically a threat to the United States simply because it would automatically tear apart a crucial influence sphere in the Caribbean (Freedman, 2000).
Kennedy’s government feared that Cuba would grow strong from the support they got from Soviet Union and thus communism regime would gradually expand and grow strong even within the neighboring nations. So the main aim of this doctrine was for the United States to basically expand its territories to Cuba.
Domínguez, J. I. (1997). US‐Cuban Relations: From the Cold War to the Colder War. Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, 39(3), 49-75.
Freedman, L. (2000). Kennedy’s Wars: Berlin, Cuba, Laos, and Vietnam. Oxford University Press, USA.
Litwak, R. (2000). Rogue states and US foreign policy: containment after the Cold War. Woodrow Wilson Center Press.
McCormick, T. J. (1995). America’s half-century: United States foreign policy in the cold war and after. JHU Press.
Norton, M. B., Sheriff, C., Blight, D. W., & Chudacoff, H. (2011). A People and a Nation: A History of the United States, Volume II: Since 1865 (Vol. 2). Cengage Learning.
Wright, T. C. (2001). Latin America in the era of the Cuban Revolution. Greenwood Publishing Group.