Lab Report GuidelinesCommunication is necessary to disseminate information.  In this regard, beyond talking witheach  other,  scientists  report  on  their  work by  writing articles  on  their  findings  and  publishthem  in journals  that  other  scientists  read. The  main  idea  a  scientific  article  is  to  conveyscientific findingsthat usually emerge from a hypothesis driven experiment(s).The structure or format of these scientific articles is nearly universal irrespective of the length of the article.The formatis a convention that guides the author as well as the reader.  At its most basic, theformat guides one through the process telling a story.The  format  for  theLab Report  on  the  activity  of  enzymes  will  resemble  that  of  a  scientificjournal article with some modifications.The Lab Report will have aTitle, anIntroduction, a Methods and Materials,a Results,a Discussion/Conclusionand anAppendixsectioN.Each section istyped in bold and start on a new page.An Abstract summarizing the articleis not required although   they areubiquitousin   scientificjournalarticles.ReferencesandAcknowledgments  (for  help  received  and  collaborations)are  not  required,  butmaybeincluded.   Each  section  is unique, different  fromeach  other, buttheyrely  on  each  other  toconveythe story.TheIntroductiondescribesthereason for the article.  Include enoughbackground material togain  the  readers interest, much like  all good  story  telling does.  For our purposes, limit the discussion of enzymes to the material presented inclass lectures andin the textbook.  There is  no  need  to  look  for  additional  information  on  enzymes  unless  you  are  so  driven, but  be warned, the amount of information is overwhelming.  At the end of the Introduction, list thehypotheses for all parts or experiments inthe study.       The Methods and Materialsdescribes all the steps taken to perform the experiments.  Thepurpose  of  this  section  is  to  allow  someone  else  to  replicate  your  work.    Therefore,  allchemicals   or   reagents,   their   concentration,  how   they   were   mixed   together  and   theinstrumentation used must be noted.There is no need to explain how an instrument worksunless it is a newly developed one.  For instance, one can assume that the reader knows howto operate a spectrophotometer.This section is the near equivalent of a cook book to a chef.If there are five experiments, then provide instructions for replicating all five experiments.The Results sectioncontains the study   data only.Present the raw   data   and any transformation of the raw data.Figures and tablesare ideal for presenting the data becausepictures convey information more easily than words.Label all figures, tables and images with a title, a very brief description of the data, and an explanation ofspecific components of the image that importantfor  interpreting  the  data.Introduce each figure or table in  the  text.  Presenting a figure or table withoutany text is a serious mistake–you are asking the reader to read your mind and intentions.  Avoid the temptationofexplaining the data in this section–this comes later in the Discussion/Conclusion section.However, you may explain that one or two points in the data were omitted in a figure or table due to some mishap during the datacollection-this is perfectly acceptable. Remember, the focus of this section is the data, and only the data.                                  The Discussion/Conclusionsectionis  where  you interpret your findings  and results.First, restate the goals of the study.  Second, interpret that data by considering whether the data from the experiments support your hypotheses stated in the Introduction.Third,synthesize all the data or observations in thestudy.  Do the results fit what you know about enzymes and what you expected?The datamake sense with your knowledge and expectations.  Discuss whether it does or does not.Fourth,discuss how future work may address any weaknessesin the experiments performed,and suggest possible studies that will build on the knowledgegained from these studies.Lastly, make a final conclusion about the observations in your lab and how they fit the topic.A Reference section  is  included  if  you  wish  to  cite  any  literature  such as  your  textbook,  the lab or any other source material.It is not required for this assignment.An Acknowledgementsection is included if you wish tothank anyone who provided you some unique reagents,or help in the writing of the text.It is not required for this assignment.There are questions in the lab manual after each experiment.You must address thesewithin the appropriate section of theLab Report.Figure out where the answer to each question fits inthe Lab Report format discussed above before you start writing.The  Lab  Report  shouldbe  a minimum of 8typed pages of text(excludingfigures,  tables, illustrations, or other images), double spaced,and 10pt.–12 pt.font.  The Introduction (min. of text),Methods and Materials(min. 4page of text), Results (min. 1.5page of text)and  Discussion/Conclusion(min.  1  page  of  text).For  this  particular assignment,  place  all figures,  tables,  illustrations, and imagesat the end  of  the  paper and callthis  section  theAppendix.The length of the Appendix does not count towards the length of the Lab Report.Warning:  Do not plagiarize!  This is a serious offense.  Do not copy-and-paste from any source including a classmate’s Lab Report.  Thepenalty is a score of zero points (0 points).

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