biology for summary (discussed in class):1.Which questions were addressed by the authors for this particular paper?2.What does “empirically derived” mean?3.How do the authors justify the questions asked?4.What is considered to be “modern extinction”?5.What are the five vertebrate taxa considered in this study?6.The authors focused on using conservative rates of modern extinction inorder to avoid skepticism and to see if the use of the term “6th massextinction” is still justified. They used two different categories: “highlyconservative rates” and “conservative rates”. What were the criteria usedfor each category (see Table 1)?7.Why is 1900 considered separately from 1500 as the time for modernextinction rates?8.What was the range found for modern extinction rate in relation tobackground extinction rates?9.How many years would it have taken for the vertebrates that wentextinct in the last century to go extinct if the background extinction ratehad prevailed?10.According to the authors, how does the loss of biodiversity affecthuman well-being?11.Outside of human well-being, why do you think we should care about theloss of biodiversity?12.What do the authors conclude from this analysis?13.On a human time scale, do the authors consider the loss of biodiversity(and biodiversity benefits) permanent? Why or why not?14.What suggestions do the authors make to avoid such loss (specifically,what are three notably important issues that must be urgently dealt with)?

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