REPLY 1 150 WORDS CITATION REFERENCES
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD, is a chronic progressive lung disease that is nonreversible and includes emphysema and chronic bronchitis. COPD refers to a group of diseases that cause airflow blockage and breathing-related problems (“Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),” 2020). COPD affects people aged 65 to over 75 years of age. Some complications of COPD can have increased confusion or memory loss, in addition to functional limitations (Greenlund, Liu, Deokar, Wheaton, & Croft, 2016). For instance, people may have difficulty walking or engage in social activities like eating out or going to social events.
COPD is now the third leading cause of death in the United States, yet between 85 to 90 percent of COPD deaths can be prevented simply by not smoking. 5 ways to prevent the development of COPD include stopping smoking, avoiding second-hand smoke, avoiding air pollution, avoiding occupational exposures, and knowing one’s family history due to a genetic component of COPD (“5 best ways to prevent COPD,” 2011). Public health programs and policies that focus on tobacco-use prevention and cessation, reducing occupational exposure to dusts and chemicals, and reducing other indoor and outdoor air pollutants are critically important for the health promotion aspect of preventing COPD (CDC Foundation, 2016). Early treatment and control of asthma may also prevent the development of COPD (CDC Foundation, 2016). Patients with COPD have increased nutritional requirements because of the additional work of breathing (CDC Foundation, 2016). If dietary requirements are not met, musculature of the chest wall could deteriorate. If COPD patients are underweight, patients can be educated to add the following sources of additional calories: butter, margarine, mayonnaise, peanut butter, nuts, and high-fat ice cream (COPD Foundation, 2016). Meeting nutritional requirements is one way nurses can help to reduce hospital readmissions for the COPD patient.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (2020, April 28). Retrieved fromhttps://www.cdc.gov/copd/index.html
5 best ways to prevent COPD. (2011, September 13). Retrieved from https://www.everydayhealth.com/copd/5-best-ways-to-prevent-copd.aspx
Greenlund, K. J., Liu, Y., Deokar, A. J., Wheaton, A. G., & Croft, J. B. (2016). Association of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease With Increased Confusion or Memory Loss and Functional Limitations Among Adults in 21 States, 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Preventing chronic disease, 13, E02. https://doi.org/10.5888/pcd13.150428
https://www.cdc.gov/copd/pdfs/Framework_for_COPD_Prevention.pdf COPD Foundation. (2016). Slim Skinny’s reference guide. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/ajhom/Dow