Biology Lab 4

In this lab, you will observe diagrams that show the major components of the endocrine, circulatory, and respiratory systems. Using the textbook and virtual library resources, fill in the tables.Explore Endocrine, Circulatory, and Respiratory Systems LabUsing the M.U.S.E. link, review the background information and animation to complete your report. There are 2 parts to this lab on human body systems.Use the following worksheets to complete your assignment:Use the lab 4 part 1 worksheet to complete your work from part 1 of the lab in the M.U.S.E.Use the lab 4 part 2 worksheet to complete your work from part 2 of the lab in the M.U.S.E.Human body systems have a variety of interconnectivity. This lab will explore the functions and structures of the endocrine, circulatory (cardiovascular), and respiratory systems. The lab will also examine the interdependency of the body systems.Your lab report will consist of the completed tables and related questions.Table 1 – Endocrine System HormonesNumberName of the OrganFunctionHormone(s) Produced or Secreted1Parathyroid GlandsParathyroid hormone2Thyroid GlandThyroxine, calcitonin3Pineal GlandMelatonin4HypothalamusProduces ADH and oxytocin, regulatory hormones for the anterior pituitary.Produces and secretes TRH, Dopamine, GHRH, Somatostatin, Gonadotropin.5Pituitary GlandAnterior: Produces and secretes ACTH, TSH, GH, FSH, LH, MSHPosterior: Secretes Oxytocin and ADH6ThymusThymosins7HeartAtrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide8StomachGhrelin, Gastrin, Histamine, Neuropeptide Y, Endothelin9KidneyErythropoietin, Renin, Calcitriol10Small Intestine(duodenum)Secretin, cholecystokinin11LiverInsulin-like Growth factor 1 (IGF-1), Angiotensinogen, Thrombopoietin12Adrenal GlandsMedulla: epinephrine, norepinephrine.Cortex: glucocorticoids (cortisol), aldosterone, testosterone13PancreasInsulin, glucagon14TestesAndrogens, testosterone15UterusProlactin and Relaxin, when pregnant16OvaryEstrogens, progesteroneTable 2 – Circulatory (Cardiovascular) System FunctionsNumberName of the StructureMajor Function1Carotid arteriesDelivers blood to the head and brain2Jugular veinsCarries blood from the head to the heart3Superior vena cavaCarries blood from the upper body back to heart4Pulmonary veinsCarries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart5AortaDelivers blood to the body tissue6Pulmonary arteriesDelivers oxygen-poor blood to the lungs7Coronary arteriesDelivers blood to the heart muscle cells8Inferior vena cavaCarries blood from the lower body back to heart9Renal veinCarries blood from the kidney to the heart10Iliac veinDelivers blood from the pelvic organs and abdominal wall to the heart11Radial veinCarries blood from the hand to the heart12Renal arteryDelivers blood to the kidneys13Iliac arteryDelivers blood to the pelvic organs and abdominal wall14Radial arteryDelivers blood to the hands15Femoral veinCarries blood from the thigh and inner knee to the heart16Femoral arteryDelivers blood from the thigh and inner kneeTable 3 – Respiratory System FunctionsNumberName of the Organ or StructureMajor Function1SinusesCavities in skull; lightens head, warms and moistens air2Nasal cavityProduces mucus; filters, warms and moistens air; olfcation3PharynxPassageway for air and food4EpiglottisCovers larynx during swallowing5LarynxAir passageway; prevents food and drink from entering lower respiratory system, produces voice6LungsContains alveoli and air passageways, allows exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between atmosphere and blood7TracheaConnects larynx with bronchi leading to lungs, conducts air to and from bronchi8BronchiTwo branches of trachea that conduct air from trachea to lungs9BronchiolesNarrow passageways to conduct air from bronchi to alveoli10AlveoliMicroscopic chambers for gas exchange11Intercostal musclesMove ribs during breathing12DiaphragmMuscle sheet between chest and abdominal cavities with a role in breathingEnd of ActivityReferences:Audesirk, T., Audesirk, G., & Byers, B. E. (2008). Biology with physiology: Life on earth. (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Marieb, E. N. (2011). Essentials of human anatomy and physiology. (10th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Benjamin CummingsTortora, G. J., & Derrickson, B. H. (2008). Principles of anatomy and physiology. (12th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.LAB PART 2!!!!Endocrine SystemThe endocrine system is comprised of glands that produce chemical messengers. These messengers are called hormones. The glands include the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, thymus, and adrenal gland. In addition, the pancreas, ovaries, and testes contain endocrine tissues and secrete hormones.Question 1: How does the insulin and glucagon secreted by the pancreas function in glucose metabolism?Answer 1: Insulin and glucagon work together to keep glucose levels in the blood within the normal range. When there is an elevated blood glucose level, this stimulates beta cells in the pancreas to secrete insulin. The insulin facilitates the uptake of glucose by body cells, and the liver will uptake the glucose and store it as glycogen. These actions return blood glucose levels back to normal. When there is decreased blood glucose, this stimulates the alpha cells in the pancreas to produce glucagon. The glucagon travels to the liver and facilitates the conversion of glycogen to glucose. This glucose is released in the bloodstream to return levels back to normal.Cardiovascular SystemThe cardiovascular system is composed of the heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries), and blood. The heart is the pump that contracts to move the blood. The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body. The blood is the fluid that contains cells, nutrients, and gases.Blood flows through the body in two distinct pathways: the pulmonary pathway and the systemic pathway. The blood flowing in the pulmonary pathway is deoxygenated and it delivers this blood to the lungs to be oxygenated again. The blood flowing in the systemic pathway leaves the lungs full of oxygen and flows through the heart to be delivered to the body tissues.The following activity demonstrates the correct order for the pulmonary and systemic circulation as you trace a drop of blood flow through the body:Pulmonary CirculationSystemic Circulation1.      Venules1.      Pulmonary veins2.      Veins2.      Left atrium3.      Vena cava3.      Left ventricle4.      Right atrium4.      Aorta5.      Right ventricle5.      Arteries6.      Pulmonary arteries6.      Arterioles7.      Lung7.      CapillariesRespiratory SystemThe respiratory system functions to supply the body with oxygen. People inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. This facilitates the delivery of oxygenated blood to all of the body cells.Question 2: How do the cardiovascular and respiratory system work together to deliver blood to the body tissues?Answer 2: The respiratory system functions in the exchange of gases with the outside environment. Oxygen is inhaled through the nasal cavity or the mouth, and it travels to the alveoli in the lungs. There, the capillaries exchange the oxygen for carbon dioxide. The oxygenated blood flows back to the heart from the lungs. It enters the left side of the heart and is delivered to all the body tissues via the aorta. In the capillaries of the body tissues, oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide. This deoxygenated blood flows back to the right side of the heart and then to the lung. In the capillaries that run across the alveoli, carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen that has recently been inhaled. The carbon dioxide will then be exhaled through the mouth and nasal cavity.Exercise ActivityExercising is an activity that requires the actions of multiple body organ systems. Each system performs its specific tasks, but they must work together to allow effective total body functioning during exercising.In this activity, changes in the respiratory and heart rates in response to exercise will be recorded in the following table:ActivityBreathing Rate: bpm(breaths per minute)Pulse Rate: bpm (beats per minute)At rest16 bpm70 bpmDuring exercising30 bpm135 bpmImmediately after exercising30 bpm105 bpm5 minutes after exercising25 bpm90 bpmQuestion 3: The body experiences some stressor such as exercise, fright, or emotional stress whether it be joy or sorrow. There are certain hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine that are produced during these stressful events. These hormones are produced by the adrenal gland, and they will have an effect on the heart rate and breathing rate. Explain how the hormones produced by the adrenal could play a role in altering the respiratory and heart rates during exercise.Answer 3: When this occurs, the hypothalamus receives signals about the stress response. The body produces stress hormones. Norepinephrine and Epinephrine are released into the blood from an endocrine gland known as the adrenal gland. These hormones lead to an increase in carbon dioxide, which leads to an increase in respiratory rate. Epinephrine also increases the frequency of heartbeats whereas norepinephrine causes blood vessels to constrict. Both of these events increase the heart rate, the force of individual heart contraction, and the amount of blood flow to the muscles. These prepare the body to react to the stressor that has occurred.

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