organization development and change paper, management homework help

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I. The Organizational Context

a. Using the PESTLE model, what is the context in which the organization finds itself?

b. What are the internal issues the organization is dealing with?

c. NOTE: Select the diagnostic model you will use (e.g., McKinsey 7-S, Weisbord Six-Box, or any other approved by me) and using the model, explain the internal issues as they would fit the model. For example, one of the “Ss” for the McKinsey 7-S model is “structure.” If the internal issue is that the wrong organizational structure exists due to a change in organizational strategy, then note it that way.

II. The Management Problem (Use the diagnostic model you selected)

Think of this like a doctor diagnosing illness. Or think of it as a Gap Analysis.

a. What symptoms do you observe that suggest something is wrong (e.g., too many errors on forms, turnover is too high, etc.) versus what you should be seeing.

b. What could be causing each symptom. Identify the causes (and why they are the causes). Find research that suggests what can cause the symptoms, what happens if not addressed (e.g., Turnover can come from low job satisfaction, and turnover costs an organization $X a year). This can be from academic journals, and can also come from periodicals such as trade publications,BusinessWeek(or similar periodicals), newspapers (especiallyThe Wall Street Journal). The lit review focuses on the management question/problem and provides a framework for why solutions are important to resolve it, and why ignoring it is not an option.

c. What needs to change (*note—there may be many issues, but focus on the ones you are most familiar with, or view as most important). By this, given the symptoms, given the causes, what exactly would you change to “fix” the causes (not the symptoms—the causes).

  i. These are your alternative recommendations. One option is always to do nothing—to leave things as they are. As you develop alternative recommendations, one certain ones will be feasible to do (maybe they are affordable, maybe they are necessary because time is short and they are easier to implement and provide a quicker solution—or maybe because they have the highest long term payoff). As the change leader you need to develop recommendations or solutions. Again, these are the “fixes” for your problem causes. The selected recommendation/solutions will be what you implement.

III. The Change Initiative (Use the Kotter 8-Step model; however, you can select another implementation model with my approval. As you work through the implementation, use the Armenakis-Harris-Feild model to show what the change leader (you) would do to create readiness for the change (see item III-v below).

a. What is the plan for implementing the change(s) you believe is/are needed? What exactly are you going to implement? Be specific. Provide a step-by-step plan.  Specifically note:

  i. What will your change be (drawn from the developed recommendations/solutions)?

  ii. What major challenges will you/the organization face in implementing the proposed changes?

  iii. Who are the stakeholders in this case who can have an impact, for good or ill on the change initiative? What influence can they wield?

  iv. What types of resistance are you/the organization likely to encounter? How will you address each type of resistance?

  v. Use the Armenakis, Harris, Feild Institutionalizing Change Model. NOTE: Remember, this model is designed to look at change from the change recipient’s perspective. Thus:

1. Consider the five elements of readiness (discrepancy, appropriateness, principal support, efficacy, and valence). This means you are explaining to the organizational members why the change is needed, why the proposed change is appropriate (and, of course, what it is), who is supporting the change (and if none initially, you need to build a coalition—thus, one of the changes may be to get a guiding coalition together), the support the organization will provide the members (this is the efficacy element), and what the “pay-off” will be for both the organization and the members (long term and short term—and note—if it involves pay cuts or downsizing there may be pain for some and no positive pay-off).

b. A literature review of why this change initiative is the best alternative (here is where many, if not all of your references may show up).

IV. Evaluation

a. What are the specific outcomes you seek? For example, a reduction in Turnover (The outcomes actually will be that the symptoms you recorded cease to be. Don’t include outcomes like “a ‘motivated’ workforce’ or ‘better community relations.’ If you can’t quantify it, don’t say it.

b. What will you do to evaluate the results of the implementation? For example, use of surveys, quality control measures, recorded cost savings, etc.

V. Conclusions

a. Final thoughts, etc.

VI. Reference page:

a. NOTE: You are required to use a minimum offive peer-reviewed journalarticles/papers in support of your analysis and plan development. Beyond that you can draw from any source (except WIKIPEDIA) to support your analysis and plan.

b. NOTE: You should be using outside sources to bolster your case for change, support for the type of change, etc. so you should (a) be citing these sources within the body of the change analysis and plan and (b) including a reference page at the end. NOTE: Both citations and references should be done using APA guidelines. Just a hint–don’t list the reference page with a “VI” or whatever. It should be on a separate page. Center the word “References” and then include your references below that. See the following resources for APA style guidelines:

  i. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(6th ed.).  (2009). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

  ii. OWL Purdue Writing Center, click on APA Guide at

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