PSY4320 Academy of Art University Psychology and Gender Problem Statement

In this essay, please follow the structure as below:

1. Brief definition of ‘asymmetry gender revolution’. (50-100 words)

2. ‘Asymmetry gender revolution’ exists in two level:

– Individual level (behaviour and attitude) (150-200 words)

– Media level (Ads, movie, books, toys, campaign) (150-200 words)

  • Please include at least 5 references in APA style.
  • Please use plagiarism check.

Detail resources and materials:

1. Brief definition of ‘asymmetry gender revolution’.

The gender gap in egalitarianism appears to be widening for younger cohorts (Brewster & Padavic, 2000), which is attributed to a slower rate of change among men. In other words, women’s lives have changed much more than men’s.

Most of the changes in the gender system heralded as “revolutionary” involve women moving into positions and activities previously limited to men, with few changes in the opposite direction.

Men will often go to lengths to prove their masculinity to each other, whereas women enjoy a much wider gamut of acceptable intragender behaviour.

“Women have changed what it means to be a woman and embrace a much larger human canvas. Men are still painting on half the canvas,” said Michael Kimmel, a professor of sociology and gender studies and author of “Guyland: The Perilous World Where Boys Become Men.” “Now, it’s perfectly permissible for girls to (enter) boyland, but heaven help the boy who wants to move to the other side.”

As sweeping as these changes have been, change in the gender system has been uneven—affecting some groups more than others and some arenas of life more than others, and change has recently stalled.

2. ‘Asymmetry gender revolution’ exists in two level:

Individual level (behaviour and attitude)

Career choice-
Women have increasingly sort into previously male-dominated occupation such as law and accountancy (Lordan & Lekfuangfu, 2018) but men failed to move toward female-centric professions, such as jobs in nursing, child care, housekeeping and early childhood education (Cullen, 2003).

Engagement in gender equality-

men are less engage in gender equality movement (Breen & Karpinski, 2008; McCabe, 2005; Stake, 2007; White, 2006; Williams & Wittig, 1997). men who support feminist movement are often termed as more feminine, weak, gay (Rudman, Mescher, & Moss-Racusin, 2013) and will be more easily harassed at workplace (Holland et al., 2016).

Attitude toward gender role career:

Student in US college think ‘men should only hold masculine occupations, but women can have both masculine and feminine occupations’ (DiDonato & Strough, 2013).

Men and women do not pay the same price for gender norm violation. When successful at a female gender-typed job, men were characterized as more ineffectual and considered less deserving of respect than women successful at the same job or than men successful in a position considered to be more gender appropriate (Heilman & Wallen, 2010).

Some parents feel proud when their daughters eschew dolls and dresses to play sport or build things, said Cserni, almost as if their little girls were swiftly learning how to “lean in,” but many still find it unsettling if their sons were to trade football for fashion. And when boys stray from the narrow script, they typically get bullied. When one thinks of the traditional masculine ideal, the image is one that tends to be “more stoic,” “It’s been about men who never back down. It’s physically imposing and about being in control. No sissy stuff.”

Media level (Ads, movie, books, toys, campaign)

While women are being shown in less stereotypically traditional roles, male portrayals still reflect a very traditional masculine perspective. (Gentry, 2010) Surveys conducted by CSMM found that only 7 percent of men globally relate to the way masculinity is depicted in the media. Meanwhile, a recent study commissioned by The Book of Man revealed that 69 percent of men in the UK feel misrepresented by brands.

Barbie has been a member of the armed forces, a presidential candidate and an engineer; boys’ dolls continue be, nearly exclusively, action figures conscripted to battle.

Disney movies have featured a number of macho or strong and brave female characters, including “Pocahontas” (1995), “Mulan” (1998) and “Moana” (2016); meanwhile, the male characters continue to alternate between brute and naïf.

Girls get to flip through books like “Strong is the New Pretty,” but no publication is telling boys that typically feminine traits like caring for others or, yes, taking an interest in beauty (which is often tsked tsked in boys) is the new strong.


Why girls can be boyish but boys can’t be girlish


Philip Lemaster, JoNell Strough, and Rachel Stoiko (2015) To Have and to Do: Masculine Facets of Gender Predict Men’s and Women’s Attitudes About Gender Equality Among College Students

Madeline E. Heilman a,*, Aaron S. Wallen (2010) Wimpy and undeserving of respect: Penalties for men’s gender-inconsistent success

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