The interaction of the mammalian brain and immune system is:only a defensive response to pathogensalways a destructive autoinflammatory pathologysometimes a normal part of developmentalways either a response to a pathogen or a destructive autoinflammatory pathologyQUESTION 2The brain is surrounded and protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a border of endothelial cells which separates the blood from the fluid surrounding the central nervous system. Testosterone is produced in the gonads, so how can it affect development of the brain?Testosterone cannot cross the blood-brain barrier and must direct cells lining the BBB to secrete their own signaling molecules to influence the brain.Steroid hormones are relatively small and lipophilic, so testosterone readily crosses the selectively permeable blood-brain barrier and acts directly on androgen receptors (or is locally converted into estradiol and acts on estrogen receptors)The blood-brain barrier only prevents the migration of cells; anything soluble in the blood fluid can easily cross it.Testosterone does not do anything to the brain.QUESTION 3Increased microglial phagocytosis in response to endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling was observed:throughout all regions of the brainonly in the amygdalathroughout the entire bodythe prefrontal cortexQUESTION 4For what purpose did the authors use an antibody against ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1)?How did they determine which cells were engaged in phagocytosis?QUESTION 5Staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) enabled the authors to determine the cells the microglia were engulfing were recently divided cells. Since microglia are known to phagocytose dead or apoptotic (dying) cells, the researchers looked for a specific marker of apoptosis.What was it?Based on this experiment, were the microglia engulfing apoptotic cells, or otherwise viable cells?QUESTION 6The presence of DAPI in a phagoyctic cup is taken to mean that:the microglia are engulfing debristhe microglia are engulfing cells (DAPI stains the nucleus, specifically DNA)the microglia are undergoing apoptosisthe microglia are impermeable10 pointsQUESTION 7The phagocytic activity of microglia could be intrinsic to the sex (XX vs XY chromosomes). How do the authors investigate this? What result do they find?10 pointsQUESTION 8What question did the authors attempt to address using the thymidine analog 5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine (BrdU)? What was the finding?10 pointsQUESTION 9What molecule did the authors use to prevent phagocytosis? What question were they addressing? What was the outcome of this experiment?10 pointsQUESTION 10What are some putative or known roles of the anterodorsal (MeAD), anteroventral (MeAV), posterodorsal (MePD), and posteroventral (MePV) regions of the amygdala (this may not be in the paper)?
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